Sardinia has a fascinating history dating back to 9,000 years BC, which was proven by bone finds. Many peoples and cultures have shaped the island throughout its millennia- old history.
Probably the most influential phase was the Neolithic with its nuragic culture around 1600 BC. During this time, the stone towers, called Nuraghen, which are found all over the island were formed. More than 7,000 of these striking buildings can be found scattered around the island. These were mainly used for religious and cultural purposes, although some historians still doubt it.
In addition to the towers there are also the so-called Giant tombs and rock tombs (Domus de Janas). These are sacred graves made of huge stones. Many of these buildings are still in very good condition today and can be visited.
Livestock and agriculture were the most important part of Sardinians roots. In the Phoenician period from 9000 to about 500 BC, which at that time ruled the nearby North African coast around today's Tunisia and Lebanon, trade flourished in Sardinia. The Phoenicians, seafaring people with their center of power in Carthage, later fought wars against the Puniers who claimed the territory of Sardinia.
From about 240 BC The Romans first took power, followed by the Vandals and later the Byzantines, whose rule ended in 832 AD. After this time, Sardinia was ruled by four local rulers, the Guidicati. Even today, the famous flag of Sardinia, which shows four Moors, commemorates the time of the autonomous rule of the four Guidicati, who defended the island against the attacks of the Arabs.
Due to the partial occupation of the coasts of Sardinia by the Arabs, that occured later, the coastal cities of the mainland felt increasingly threatened. The rulers of Pisa and Genoa then allied, displacing the Arabs again and dividing the island among themselves.
In the further course of Sardinias history many wars were fought and Sardinia experienced numerous rulers from different nations. In the north of the island, the Sardinians were expelled by Catalan settlers, who strongly influenced the Alghero culture.
Even today, Catalan terms can still be found in language and Alghero's architecture is also strongly reminiscent of the Spanish. Numerous inheritances, including the Habsburg line, caused many terms in the language to be similar to German.
Today Sardinia is again an autonomous region of Italy and consists of the four provinces of Nuoro, Oristano, Sassari and Sud Sardegna.